the first time the problem of finding the differential equation
corresponding to the known family of eigenvalues was
solved. For the time a problem inverse to Sturm-Liuville’s
problem was formulated, which later became a starting point
to create an entire field of analogical class inverse problems (1929).
Uber eine Frage der Eigenwerttheorie (On a
Problem of the Theory of Eigenvalues) // Zeitschrift
fur Physik, Vol. 53, Nos. 9-10, p. 690-695, 1929 (in
2.An idea that not only the quanta of the
electromagnetic field, photons, but also other particles
(including particles having nonzero rest mass) may be born and disappear as a
result of their interaction with other particles
(this idea lays in the basis of modern physics of the elementary particles and
quantum field theory) (together with D.D. Ivanenko,
W.A. Ambarzumjan, D.D. Iwanenko
Bemerkung zur einheitlichen Feldtheorie (A
Quantum-Theoretical Remark on the Uniform Field Theory) // Äîêëàäû Àêàäåìèè Íàóê ÑÑÑÐ, ñåð. À (Doklady USSR Acad. Sci., Ser.
A), Vol. 3, p. 45-49, 1930 (in German).
impossibility of existence of free electrons in the atomic
nuclei was proved. It was shown that only electrically
uncharged elementary particles of approximately proton mass could exist
together with protons in nuclei. Two years later James
Chadwick discovered the neutron (together with D.D. Ivanenko, 1930).
D.D. Iwanenko Uber eine Folgerung der Diracschen Theorie der Protonen und Elektronen (On a
Consequence of the Dirac Theory of Protons and Electrons) // Äîêëàäû Àêàäåìèè Íàóê ÑÑÑÐ, ñåð. À (Doklady USSR Acad. Sci., Ser.
A), Vol. 6, p. 153-155, 1930 (in German).
V.A. Ambartsoumian, D.D. Ivanenko
Les electrons inobservables et les rayons β (The Inobservable
Electrons and β Rays) // Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l'Academie des
sciences de Paris, Vol. 190, No. 9, p. 582-584, 1930 (in French).
the first time the influence of the light pressure on the
planetary nebulae dynamics was studied. The new result on the expansion
and dissipation of planetary nebulae owing to light pressure
was obtained. It was shown that the age of planetary nebulae could not exceed
100000 years if no continuous outflow existed from the central star. For the
first time the new evolutionary paradigm on formation of objects from denser
matter was formulated (1932).
The Radiative Equilibrium of a Planetary
Nebula // Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS), Vol. 93,
No. 1, p. 50-61, 1932 (in English).
method (modification of Zanstras method)
for determination of the planetary nebulaes
central stars surface temperature giving the
probabilistic definition of short wave energetic photons transformation into
less energetic ones. This definition led to the radiative
equilibrium determination (1932). This method bears V. Ambartsumian’s
On the Temperatures of the Nuclei of Planetary
Nebulae // Öèðêóÿð Ïóëêîâñêîé Îáñåðâàòîðèè (Poulkovo
Observatory Circular), No. 4, p. 8-12, 1932 (in English).
the first time the amount of matter and masses of envelopes
ejected due to the Novae and Supernovae explosions
was estimated. Presently known values of 0.00001 and 1 solar masses for Novae
and Supernovae phenomena have been found, respectively (together with N.A. Kozirev, 1933).
N.A. Kosyrew Uber
die Massen der von den neuen Sternen ausgestossenen
Gashullen (On the Masses of Envelopes thrown out by
Novae) // Zeitschrift fur Astrophysik,
Vol. 7, No. 4, p. 320-325, 1933 (in German).
the first time the distribution function of stellar 3D velocities
has been obtained only using radial velocities and coordinates
of stars. This problem has been reduced to the numerical inversion of the Radon
transform. Four decades later the same mathematical scheme was applied for the
construction and exploitation of computer tomography (1936).
On the Derivation of the Frequency Function of Space Velocities of the
Stars from the Observed Radial Velocities // Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Society (MNRAS), Vol. 96, No. 3, p. 172-179, 1936 (in English).
8.By means of investigation of white stars at low
Galactic latitudes, the existence of a great number of white
dwarf stars in the Galaxy was shown, which was later proved by
discoveries of a large number of white dwarfs (together with G.A. Shain, 1936)
G.A. Shain On the Faint White Stars in Low
Galactic Latitudes // Àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèé Æóðíàë (Soviet
Astronomy), Vol. 13, No. 1, p. 1-7, 1936 (in English).
the statistical studies of wide binaries it was shown for the first time that
those did not obey the dissociative equilibrium conditions. The same studies
allowed to arrive at a conclusion that the components
of binaries had been formed jointly. Moreover, the observed
distribution put an upper limit for the Galaxy age, 10 billion
years. This proved incorrectness of the generally accepted estimate of
the age of our Galaxy obtained by James Jeans (so-called "long
scale", 1013 years) was shown and a new estimate of its age was
given (so-called "short scale") (1936-1937).
Double Stars and the Cosmogonic Time-Scale //
Nature, Vol. 137, No. 3465, p. 537, 1936 (in English).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Ê ñòàòèñòèêå äâîéíûõ çâåçä
(On the Statistics of Double Stars) // Àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèé Æóðíàë
(Astron. Zh.), Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 207-219, 1937 (in
of statistical mechanics of stellar systems. The mechanism
of star evaporation from the open stellar clusters
was revealed. Using of this effect allowed to find for the first time the
halftime of disintegration of the clusters, and was applied to anticipate the
gradual decrease of the number of low mass stars in clusters. It was proven
that open star clusters disintegrate during about 1 billion years, and predict
the process of impoverishment of the clusters with dwarf stars. These studies
provided a theoretical base for decreasing the accepted age of the Galaxy for a
thousand times and for introducing the short scale of the Galaxy
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Ê âîïðîñó î äèíàìèêå îòêðûòûõ ñêîïëåíèé (On the Dynamics of Open Clusters) // Òðóäû ÀÎ ËÃÓ; Ó÷. çàï. ËÃÓ, Ñåðèÿ
4 (Trudy LGU; Ucheniye Zapiski LGU, Ser. Math. Sciences
(Astronomy). Issue 4), No. 22, p. 19-22, 1938 (in Russian).
nature and patchy structure of the interstellar absorbing matter
(dust component of the Milky Way) was revealed and the mean
absorption of individual clouds was estimated to be equal to
0.2 magnitudes (together with Sh.G.
Problem of Diffuse Nebulae and Cosmic Absorption // Áþëëåòåíü Àáàñòóìàíñêîé ÀÎ
(Bulletin of the Abastumani Astrophysical
Observatory), No. 2, p. 37-68, 1938 (in English and Georgian).
of light scattering theory in turbid medium, theory of
Invariance. The Invariance principle was proposed for
solving the radiative transfer problems. A very
simple physical reasoning that the reflection properties of the semi-infinite
plane-parallel medium do not change if a very thin layer of the same physical
properties is added to its boundary gave an excellent base for creation of a
new research method (1941-1942). This principle bears V. Ambartsumian’s
name and the corresponding function was named V. Ambartsumian’s
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Íîâûé ñïîñîá ðàñ÷åòà ðàññåÿíèÿ ñâåòà â ìóòíîé ñðåäå
(A New Method of Calculation of the Light Scattering in Turbid Medium) // Èçâåñòèÿ ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ, ñåðèÿ ãåîãðàôè÷åñêàÿ è ãåîôèçè÷åñêàÿ
(Izvestiya Acad. Sci. USSR, Ser. Geograph.
and Geophys. Sci.), Vol. 3, p.
97-103, 1942 (in Russian).
V.A. Ambartsumian The
Scattering of Light in a Turbid Medium // Journal of Physics, Vol. 5, No. 1, p.
93, 1941 (in English).
theory of the fluctuations in brightness of the Milky Way
was formulated. In the simplest form it asserts that the probability
distribution of fluctuations in the brightness of the Milky Way is invariant to
the location of the observer (1944).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Ê òåîðèè ôëþêòóàöèè ÿðêîñòè Ìëå÷íîãî Ïóòè
(To the Theory of Fluctuation in the Brightness of the Milky Way) // Äîêëàäû Àêàäåìèè Íàóê ÑÑÑÐ (Doklady USSR Acad.
Sci.), Vol. 44, No. 6, p. 244-247, 1944 (in Russian).
14.Discovery of stellar associations,
groups of hot giants and T Tauri stars. It was shown
for the first time that the star formation process continues at all stages of
the evolution of our Galaxy, including the present one and that the star
formation is a permanent process. A conclusion was drawn that stars
are formed not individually, but in
Evolution of Stars and
Astrophysics // Acad. Sci. ArmSSR, 39 p., Yerevan,
1948 (in Armenian).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûå äàííûå îá Î-àññîöèàöèÿõ
â Ãàëàêòèêå (Preliminary Data on
O-Associations in the Galaxy) // Äîêëàäû Àêàäåìèè Íàóê
ÑÑÑÐ (Doklady USSR Acad. Sci.), Vol. 68, No.
1, p. 21-22, 1949 (in Russian).
15.Theoretical prediction of the
phenomenon of expansion of stellar associations.
Revealing the importance of the stellar associations as
dynamically unstable entities. Statistics of the Trapezium Orionis type systems and a proof
of disintegration of the young stellar systems
(together with B.E.
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Çâåçäíûå àññîöèàöèè (Stellar Associations) // Àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèé Æóðíàë
(Astron. Zh.), Vol. 26, No. 1, p. 3-9, 1949 (in
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí, Á.Å. Ìàðêàðÿí (V.A. Ambartsumian,
B.E. Markarian) Çâåçäíàÿ àññîöèàöèÿ âîêðóã
Ð Ëåáåäÿ (Stellar Association
around P Cygni) // Ñîîáùåíèÿ Áþðàêàíñêîé îáñåðâàòîðèè
(Communications of the Byurakan Observatory), No. 2,
p. 3-17, 1949 (in Russian).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Î âåðîÿòíîñòè êàæóùèõñÿ êðàòíûõ ñèñòåì òèïà Òðàïåöèè
Îðèîíà (On the Frequency of
the Orion Trapezium type Apparent Multiple Systems) // Äîêëàäû Àêàäåìèè Íàóê ÀðìÑÑÐ
(Doklady Acad. Sci. ArmSSR),
Vol. 13, No. 4, p. 97-103, 1951 (in Russian).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Ê ñòàòèñòèêå êðàòíûõ ñèñòåì òèïà Òðàïåöèè
(On the Statistics of Trapezium type Multiple Systems) // Äîêëàäû Àêàäåìèè Íàóê ÀðìÑÑÐ
(Doklady Acad. Sci. ArmSSR),
Vol. 13, No. 5, p. 129-131, 1951 (in Russian).
nature of the continuous emission observed in the spectra
of non-stable stars and put forward an idea about new possible sources of
stellar energy, the hypothesis of the superdense
protostellar matter (1954). This
hypothesis bears V. Ambartsumian’s name.
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí ßâëåíèå íåïðåðûâíîé ýìèññèè è èñòî÷íèêè çâåçäíîé ýíåðãèè (The Phenomenon of the Continuous Emission and
Sources of Stellar Energy) // Ñîîáùåíèÿ Áþðàêàíñêîé îáñåðâàòîðèè
(Communications of the Byurakan Observatory), No. 13,
p. 1-36, 1954 (in Russian).
17.The hypothesis on the activity of
galactic nuclei was proclaimed. The various forms of activity
were presented as different manifestations of the same phenomenon of activity.
The evolutionary significance of the activity in the galactic nuclei was
emphasized and a further hypothesis was suggested on the ejection of new
galaxies from the active galactic nuclei. The hypothesis on the superdense protostellar matter
was engaged to explain the observational data (1956). This hypothesis bears V. Ambartsumian’s name.
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Ê âîïðîñó î ïðèðîäå èñòî÷íèêîâ ðàäèîèçëó÷åíèÿ (On the Nature of Radio
Sources) // Òðóäû Ïÿòîãî ñîâåùàíèÿ ïî âîïðîñàì
9-12 ìàðòà 1955 ã., ÀÍ ÑÑÑÐ
(Proc. Fifth conference on Problems of Cosmogony: "Radioastronomy",
held on 9-12 Mar 1955. Acad. Sci. USSR), p. 413-416, Ìîñêâà
(Moscow), 1956 (in Russian).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Î êðàòíûõ ãàëàêòèêàõ (On Multiple Galaxies) // Èçâåñòèÿ ÀÍ ÀðìÑÑÐ, ñåðèÿ ôèçèêî-ìàòåìàòè÷åñêèõ, åñòåñòâåííûõ è òåõíè÷åñêèõ íàóê (Izvestiya Acad. Sci.
ArmSSR, Ser. Phys.-Math., Nat. and Tech. Sci.), Vol.
9, No. 1, p. 23-43, 1956 (in Russian).
studies of the hypothetical superdense degenerate protostellar matter: development of principles
of the theory of baryonic stars, which allowed a
detailed research of physical conditions in superdense
stellar conditions in the frame enabled by the modern knowledge of physics.
These researches later on allowed increasing the Chandrasekhar limit of stellar
masses (together with G.S. Saakyan,
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí, Ã.Ñ. Ñààêÿí (V.A. Ambartsumian,
G.S. Saakyan) Î âûðîæäåííîì ñâåðõïëîòíîì ãàçå ýëåìåíòàðíûõ ÷àñòèö
(The Degenerate Superdense Gas of Elementary
Particles) // Àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèé Æóðíàë (Astron. Zh.), Vol. 37, No. 2, p. 193-209, 1960 (in Russian) //
English translation in: Soviet Astronomy, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 187-201, 1960.
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí, Ã.Ñ. Ñààêÿí (V.A. Ambartsumian,
G.S. Saakyan) Î ðàâíîâåñíûõ êîíôèãóðàöèÿõ ñâåðõïëîòíûõ âûðîæäåííûõ ãàçîâûõ ìàññ (On Equilibrium Configurations of Superdense Degenerate Gas Masses) // Àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèé Æóðíàë
(Astron. Zh.), Vol. 38, No. 5, p. 785-797, 1961 (in
Russian) // English transaltion in: Soviet Astronomy,
Vol. 5, No. 5, p. 601-610, 1962.
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí, Ã.Ñ. Ñààêÿí (V.A. Ambartsumian,
G.S. Saakyan) Âíóòðåííîå ñòðîåíèå ãèïåðîííûõ
êîíôèãóðàöèé çâ¸çäíûõ ìàññ (Internal Structure of Hyperon Configurations of
Stellar Masses) // Àñòðîíîìè÷åñêèé Æóðíàë (Astron. Zh.), Vol. 38, No. 6, p. 1016-1024, 1961 (in Russian) //
English transaltion in: Soviet Astronomy, Vol. 5, No.
6, p. 779-784, 1962.
19.Statistical studies of the flare
stars revealed their evolutionary status: a method for estimation of
the total number of flare stars in a star system based on the number of the
observed flares. The flare activity was shown to be the regular stage in the
evolutionary path of the low luminosity and low mass late-type stars. It was
proved that all the stars of the mentioned
category necessarily pass through the stage of flare activity
in the early phases of their evolution (1968).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Ê ñòàòèñòèêå âñïûõèâàþùèõ îáúåêòîâ
(On the Statistics of Flare Objects) // Òðóäû ñèìïîçèóìà "Çâåçäû.
60-ëåòèþ àêàäåìèêà Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿíà,
Áþðàêàí, 16-19 ñåíòÿáðÿ
1968 ã., ÀÍ ÀðìÑÑÐ (Proc. symp. "Stars, Nebulae, Galaxies", devoted to the
60th anniversary of academician V.A. Ambartsumian,
held in Byurakan, 16-19 Sep 1968. Acad.
Sci. ArmSSR), p. 283-292, Åðåâàí (Yerevan), 1969
20.Obtaining an original solution of the inverse
problem of derivation of the distribution function
of average frequencies of flares in the given stellar system
on the basis of chronology of discovery (first flares) and confirmation (second
flares) of the flare stars (1978).
Â.À. Àìáàðöóìÿí Âûâîä ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ÷àñòîòû çâ¸çäíûõ âñïûøåê â çâ¸çäíîì àãðåãàòå
(Derivation of the frequency function of stellar flares in a star cluster) // Àñòðîôèçèêà
(Astrofizika), Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 367-381, 1978 (in
Russian) // English translation in: Astrophysics, Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 209-217,